Melbourne CSHE Scholarship of Technology Enhanced Learning research network

Join us for the Scholarship of Technology Enhanced Learning Symposium #SOTELNZ tomorrow & Friday

The SoTEL 2021 Symposium is a two-day online virtual event with 6 Trendsetters/Keynotes, and over 20 expert presenters. See the program at now live & abstracts published at Presentations include: @4DVirtualFarm @aiello_stephen @kateycoleman Lionel Lam




Designing video feedback to support the socioemotional aspects of online learning

A member of the Technology-Enhanced Learning research group at Melbourne CSHE, Tracii Ryan, has authored a new journal article published in Educational Technology Research and Development.

The article, titled ‘Designing video feedback to support the socioemotional aspects of online learning‘ will be part of a forthcoming special issue – Shifting to digital: Informing the rapid development, deployment, and future of teaching and learning. The special issue features articles focused on the emergency shift to online learning caused by COVID19.

In this somewhat unusual special issue, authors were required to produce 500-1000 word responses to articles that had been previously published in Educational Technology Research and Development. The goal of these responses was to highlight how findings from the original article could be used to inform news ideas for flexible learning, online learning, and learning disruption.

Tracii’s article responds a 2015 paper by Borup, West and Thomas, titled, The impact of text versus video communication on instructor feedback in blended courses. Essentially, the response suggests that the provision of video feedback can support positive socioemotional outcomes in learners. It also highlights three design considerations for educators to consider when designing video feedback for online learners: content, timing and personalisation.

The abstract and citation for the new article are presented below.

The COVID-19 pandemic required instructors to rapidly redesign subject delivery for the online environment. In dealing with this emergency situation, instructors may have focused their energies primarily on transitioning learning and assessment activities to the online context rather than working to support the socioemotional aspects of learning, such as belonging and motivation. As a result, online classes may have lacked social presence, leaving students feeling unvalued and demotivated. Research findings by Borup, West, and Thomas (Educ Technol Res Dev 63(2):161–184, 2015) indicate that instructors may be able to support positive socioemotional outcomes for online students through the provision of video feedback comments. The purpose of this short response is to briefly review the work of Borup et al. (2015) and, in doing so, highlight three key design considerations relating to the creation and provision of video feedback comments in order to bolster socioemotional outcomes for online students. Limitations and implications for future research are also discussed, including cultural and inclusivity issues.

Ryan, T. (2021). Designing video feedback to support the socioemotional aspects of online learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 1-4.

Using educational design research to develop authentic learning for Graduate Entry Nursing students

This paper describes using an educational design-based methodology to evaluate authentic learning environments for Graduate Entry Nursing (GEN) students. While developing this new GEN program in New Zealand, two specific challenges arose: how to design and deliver a condensed and intensive program that met healthcare sector requirements, while ensuring the content met the needs of the typical GEN student. To meet these challenges the authors used educational design research (EDR) as a reflective and iterative approach to develop and adapt the teaching and learning strategies, content, and delivery. EDR involves four phases: exploration and analysis of the issues, design of a prototype intervention, reflection and evaluation, followed by iterative redesign and re-evaluation; this paper reports on Phase 1 and Phase 2. It is envisaged this paper will provide timely insights for those in the process of developing or refining graduate entry programs in Australasia.

Macdiarmid, R., Winnington, R., Cochrane, T., & Merrick, E. (2021, 2021/01/07/). Using educational design research to develop authentic learning for Graduate Entry Nursing students in New Zealand. Nurse Education in Practice, 102965. 

Hybrid pedagogies for pre- and in-service practice-based teacher education 2021: Covid-normal

Hybrid pedagogies for pre- and in-service practice-based teacher education 2021: Covid-normal

Kathryn Coleman and Nick J. Archer (studioFive Technician – Visual Arts & Music, MGSE)

What are hybrid pedagogies?

“My hypothesis is that all learning is necessarily hybrid. In classroom-based pedagogy, it is important to engage the digital selves of our students. And, in online pedagogy, it is equally important to engage their physical selves. With digital pedagogy and online education, our challenge is not to merely replace (or offer substitutes for) face-to-face instruction, but to find new and innovative ways to engage students in the practice of learning” (Stommel, 9 March, 2012).

There are some constraints in the current understanding of ‘blended pedagogies’ for the new ’COVID-normal’ physically distanced classroom. Much of the discussion is still focussed on delivery of content, rather than on digital learning experiences and how the learner will engage and participate in a relational space such as a studio, field or lab. The blend or dual mode of teaching signifies a binary, an either or rather than a hybridity of methods, tools and relational pedagogies. We know that educational technology has changed the nature of teaching; even more so as educators gained new skills, knowledge and experience in the design of learning and use of tools such as Canvas, Zoom, Teams and other integrations in these main ecosystems in 2020. These experiences have for many, facilitated new capabilities, and strengthened the connections between online and in-person coursework, but need to be furthered for the new safe ’COVID-normal’ digital classroom to be effective.

There are new affordances that require new metaphors for ‘knowing’ and ‘being’ pedagogies.

Fixed gear ‘town’ bike (analog)

        Multi-speed hybrid ‘off road’ bike (digital)

We use the metaphor for the fixed town bike and the multi-speed hybrid ‘off road’ bike to explore what hybrid pedagogies might allow. We were interested in exploring this because we teach Visual Arts and Design teachers in studioFive, and we are preparing them for the Covid-normal digital studio classroom that they will encounter upon graduation. We want them to be riding multi-speed ‘off road’ bikes, prepared for innovative remote teaching. Now, both bikes are great, but they take you different places; both enable and afford movement, transportation and freedom. They both get you get from one A to B, or one place to another but only one is a hybrid design that allows the rider to shift the gears, and go from the town to the track. The multi-speed hybrid ‘off road’ bike is versatile, agile and transformative.

What might this look like?

  • Teaching remotely with some options for studio-based (and practitioner site-based) learning and teaching
  • Simulated experiences
  • Our own practice as a resource (pre-recorded, recorded on site during dual mode teaching, sustainably re-used and re-purposed)
  • Blended synchronous learning (BSL): “refers to a modality where the same learning activities are experienced by students on-campus and remote students within a single group and at the same time”.
  • Captured and curated in Portfolios such as OneNote Class Notebook in Teams or Padlet
  • Live over table (Live polling, backchannel, and collaborative notetaking in Canvas, collaborative whiteboard spaces such as Miro, drawio, Jamboard)
  • For learning in video (screencast, interactive video, lecture capture, feedback)
  • As demonstration (using video recording devices, allowing you to capture lab, field, outdoor and classroom demonstrations using webcams, document cameras, handheld device etc)
  • Social Interactions for seeing connections and collaborations on site (using Kaltura, YouTube, Vimeo as webcast and livestream, using Canvas Collaboration for Jigsaw activities)
  • In real time (using Zoom, Teams, LivePolling and backchannel for class discussion)
  • Cameras on individual small portable whiteboards/large paper and Post-it notes and markers (participating in group work virtually, if they’re Zooming in using their phone).
  • Hand held devices (phones, ipads, go pro) for capturing images of Post-it notes and notes to a group whiteboard.

Fixed and Unfixed Hybrid Teaching Technologies

There are different educational technologies which can embed themselves into the classroom to aid our teaching across multiple sites including Canvas. This is the first shift to hybrid, seeing teaching as a multi-sited and socially distanced multi-sited learning space.  Depending whether you are onsite or offsite the affordances of the technology required need to be considered as placemaking.

Here, we consider this in terms of fixed and unfixed technology just as the bike metaphor affords. Fixed technology is embedded in the classroom and its use off site is limited to the fact that it is dependent on a constant power source and network (wireless and ethernet). Unfixed technology can be moved either around the classroom and can be easily used off site. Recording is possible but live streaming can be difficult for these devices and they do not integrate well into software such as Zoom.

The potential affordances of hybrid pedagogies enable a shift in how we might teach and learn, assess and evidence in real-situated and digital-online spaces and sites for pre- and in-service practice-based teacher education in the covid-19 normal.

Hybrid pedagogies are speculative, relational, responsive and strategic and designed to focus on the multimodal, material, socio-technical, creative and critical multiliteracies. Hybrid pedagogies consider the intersections of technologies, pedagogies and methodologies to design for new opportunities.

What new and innovative ways are you engaging students in the practice of learning?

Introducing @ToddStretton researcher & practitioner in Physiotherapy Education#MESH360

Todd is currently the Physiotherapy Programme Leader and Faculty Academic Quality and Development Advisor at AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand. In a time of reduced availability of clinical placements, Todd has explored the pedagogical use of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) into healthcare curricula with a focus on improving critical thinking skills and authentic learning. This has lead to the development of virtual environments specific to physiotherapy, as well as in collaboration with other health professionals . More recently, he has been involved in developing a Virtual Learning Space which would provide opportunity for students to determine and construct their own learning with peers that is situated in virtual healthcare environments.

In 2019, Todd was awarded both the Faculty and Vice Chancellor’s award for Teaching Excellence (Teaching Innovation).

Todd is about to embark on the PhD journey with the aim to investigate Critical Thinking in Healthcare Education through Mobile Extended Reality through education design research.



Introducing Charles Sevigny

Dr Charles Sevigny is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Physiology and the Director of Digital Learning for the School of Biomedical Sciences at the University of Melbourne. After completing his PhD in functional neuroanatomy in the Department of Physiology at UoM in 2012, he became a teaching specialist with a focus on technology-enabled active and blended learning. In 2018 he launched the Virtual Reality Learning studio, developing VR applications for Biomedical Science education and deploying them to cohorts of over 1200 students. He now oversees the Digital Learning Hub in the School of Biomedical Sciences which uses technology to enhance learning and collaboration of both students and academics, with a focus on enabling digital fluency and empowering students to be co-creators and contributors to their learning experience and the global community. The Digital Learning hub is currently developing a education platform, Roslin, which consolidates multiple third party teaching tools for adaptive student-centred learning.

In 2017, Charles won the University’s David White Award for Teaching Excellence for enabling individual and collaborative learning in large cohorts, and in 2020 won the Australian Physiological Society’s Michael Roberts Award for Teaching Excellence for his active engagement and excellence in teaching and learning, focus and development of digital learning modalities and recognition of his outstanding pastoral care.

Introducing the Faculty of Arts eTeaching/eLearning unit

The Faculty of Arts eTeaching/eLearning unit supports Faculty of Arts teaching staff integrate technology in teaching and learning, to enhance student engagement and interactivity, and to develop innovative teaching materials. We also provide local support and administration for Canvas and other learning tools, digital media production and manage an equipment loans office for use in Arts subject teaching. We are a small but dynamic team that was formed in 2012.  The team is constantly evolving new approaches to augment blended learning, support active learning and innovative digital media production.


Using a combination of medium-quality production and DIY approaches, we’ve explored different ways to enhance learning opportunities by creating and applying immersive technologies and VR in ways relevant to the humanities, social sciences and language disciplines. In particular, there’s opportunities for interaction with learning materials through authoring learning “experiences” that enhance our Faculty’s focus on Object Based Learning (OBL).


We’ve taken a flexible approach, so that the learning experiences and learning materials have application in a range of teaching contexts:

  • Face-to-Face:in-class active learning, in-class ‘incursion’, virtual field trips)
  • Blended Learning:material used in-class or outside of class time, through the LMS
  • Fully Online subject:virtual tours, explore places, spaces, objects.

The use of DIY approaches has been intentional. Simple drag and drop, no coding tools such as Seekbeak for building VR/360 experiences, represents something teaching staff and students can do themselves. Application includes students building interactive field trips or tours, digital storytelling presentations and alternatives to traditional essay assessment, through importing 180’ or 360 photos and adding a series of hotspots comprised or narrated voiceovers, videos, text resources. (see Seekbeak example for Online subject In the Heart of the Loire Valley).


In 2016 we filmed original interpretations of scenes of Shakespeare’s plays for use in the Shakespeare in Performance subject. The same screen from the Taming of the Shrew was filmed in three different presentation styles, including immersive 360 video, using the same text and actors. Using a classroom set of Google cardboards, students had agency to face and observe any of the actors in the scene, rather than being presented with a director’s interpretation.  We began supporting the Screen Studies program with VR technology in 2017, by assisting in ‘critical viewing sessions’ during class time. The students played short games, watch 360 clips and discussed issues such as ‘immersive storytelling’ and ‘the intersection of gaming culture’ taking turn on a solitary Oculus Rift PC VR rig.

These early examples seemed like the natural starting point to begin using XR EdTech within Arts and Humanities.


While that work continued, in 2017-18, things began to grow in a noticeably different direction. Arts eTeaching began producing teaching assets for the Ancient Worlds Studies program, using various novel mashup techniques and collaborations with other tech /TEL professional staff within Learning Environments and the Library.



These eye-catching examples were a powerful way to garner interest and support, and the ensuing period up to 2020 we chalked up about 15 ‘VR 360 3D’ projects. These ranged from in-class demonstration, learning incursions, student-led exhibitions, Arts Engagement promotions, professional development sessions, custom 6DOF/3DOF/360 learning experiences, and collaborative research projects.


While we work with specialists across the whole University, our team comprises:


Meredith Hinze, Manager, eLearning/eTeaching (Learning Design, learning technologies, professional development, Digital Producer, project coordination).

Sam Taylor, Videographer & Editor. (High end 2D & 360 video, 3D modelling, production management)

Mitch Buzza, Educational Technologist, Digital Producer. (VR 360 3D, web tools, LMS administration)

Dan Hayward, Documentary maker & Editor (Equipment and Facilities, Technical Consulting)


The Faculty of Arts has approximately 50 subject disciplines and 300 teaching staff. This diversity means there is always a few ideas for new projects bubbling up and in various stages of development. Here are three examples showing the diversity of our output.


Who is Nature?  (Version 2.0).

Learning intention: Exploring indigenous cultures, prompting critical discussion. Used in Latin American Studies subjects (undergraduate and a Masters subject). Students wrote reflective essays on the video for final assessment in semester 1, 2020.

A VR 360 & 2D Video multimedia tour of 4 cultural belief systems

Afro-Cuban, Mexican, Afrikete Festival Gold Coast, Beemarra serpenct, Pilbara WA


Against Erasure – Manus Island  (Version 1.0, 75% complete, close to publication)

Collaborative research project – Criminology, History, Geography, eTeaching

Using satellite imagery, documentary audio/video and primary source interviews to reverse engineer the now dismantled and razed Manus Island Detention Centre as a detailed 3D model with hotspots, containing links and audio commentary.



VR projects

The Library of Egyptian Stelae  (Version 2.0, 75% complete, close to publication)

Learning intention: Read hieroglyphics, prompting critical discussion

A 6DoF Unity3D based VR experience – 50 stelae in a Museum setting

Complements the ‘Tomb of Nefertari’ an exquisite high-quality 3D scanned simulation of the actual tomb in Egypt, which is now sealed off from any visitors.



Arts eTeaching Unit:

Introducing Alexis Pang

Alexis Pang is a Teaching Specialist at the School of Agriculture and Food, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences. He is interested in the innovative use of technology, particularly mobile learning to enhance the learning and teaching of earth sciences such as geomorphology, soil science and hydrology. At the Faculty, Alexis led the development of Fieldfriend, a mobile learning app for smartphones to support field-based learning. Alexis was previously an Educational Technology Officer (R&D) at the Ministry of Education, Singapore, where he led projects such as Mixed Reality for Primary Science learning; Large-scale semi-formal learning with mobile technology (Learn@ programme at the Singapore Science Centre). He was the main project officer for the FutureSchools@Singapore programme for large-scale innovative ICT curricular and pedagogical integration in multiple schools. Alexis was also research collaborator on the Learning Sciences Lab (NIE, Singapore) led National Research Foundation (NRF) funded educational research project “Voyage to the Age of Dinosaurs” 3DVLE.

Relevant publications:

Pang, A. & Weatherley, A. J. (2016). Fieldfriend: A Smartphone App for Mobile Learning in the Field. In Chen, W. et al. (Eds.). Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE). India: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education. Link:

Lee, J.W.Y., Pang, A.L.H., Ruffolo, L. & Kim, B. (2010). Designing around preconceptions in earth science. In Z. Abas et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Global Learn Asia Pacific 2010 (pp. 1217-1222). Association for the Advancement of Computers in Education (AACE). Available from:

Kim, B., Pang, A., Kim, M. & Lee, J. (2009). Designing with Learners for Game-Based Collaborative Learning: An Account of T-Rex Group. CSCL2009 Community Events Proceedings (8th International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, June 2009, Rhodes, Greece). Available from:

Kim, B, Wang, X., Tan, L., Kim, M-S, Lee, J. & Pang, A. (2009). Designing with Stakeholders for Learning Innovations: Voyage to the Age of Dinosaurs. Symposium paper presented at the Annual Meeting 2009 – American Educational Research Association. Available from:

Pang, A. L. H. & Phua, Y. C. (2008). Large-scale semi-formal learning activities for Singapore schools – Learn@ programme. In Chan, T. W. et al. (2008), Proceedings ICCE 2008 The 16th International Conference on Computers in Education, pp. 919 to 924. Jhongli, Taiwan: APSCE. Available from:

Pang, A. L. H., Phua, Y. C., Wu, W. T., Suriyani, R., Mohd-Noor, M. Y. & Pan, A. (2007). Exploratory Study on the Use of Mixed Reality for Primary Science Learning. In T. Hirashima et al. (Eds.), Supporting Learning Flow Through Integrative Technologies (Proceedings of ICCE 2007), (pp. 449 to 452). Amsterdam: IOS Press. Available from:

Pang, A. (2006). Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in Education. Educational Technology Division, Ministry of Education, Singapore. Available at

Pang, A. L. H. (2005). The Educational Effectiveness of Dynamic and Interactive Data Visualization and Exploration in Geographical Education. Paper presented at International Conference on Education – Redesigning Pedagogy: Research, Policy and Practice. May 2005, Singapore. Available at

Introducing @aiello_stephen #MESH360 researcher

Paramedicine offers unlimited opportunities due to it being a relatively new research environment. Since starting his research career at Auckland University of Technology (New Zealand) in 2014, Stephen has been working toward the development of design-based research projects that aim to provide more authentic critical care educational experiences and learner-centered pedagogies within the emergent profession of Paramedicine education.

Stephen’s aim is to explore the critical care aspects of emergency medicine in relation to paramedic pre-hospital management within an immersive simulation (XR) environment. Stephen is part of the investigation team reviewing the use of virtual reality for Paramedic scene orientation and situational awareness. His research investigates virtual environments and Paramedical experiential data in order to guide decision-making via qualitative research methods and biometric quantitative feedback. This work has expanded to include all health school departments and will form a catalyst for future work.

To date, the investigation into 360-degree immersive environments and biometric feedback has led to both national and international collaborations. This extensive work is ground-breaking and has been awarded several accolades for innovation and teaching excellence.



Cochrane, T, Aguayo, C, Aiello, S, Wilkinson, N. (2019). Enhancing Simulation Training through

Immersive Reality: MESH360. Full paper accepted for the upcoming BJET Special Section on Immersive

Virtual Reality in Education. United Kingdom.


Cochrane, T, Aguayo, C, Aiello, S, Wilkinson, N. (2019). Developing A Mobile Immersive Reality

Framework For Enhanced Simulation Training: MESH360. Paper to be presented at ASCILITE 2018



Aiello, S, Cook, S. (2019). I See Real Things. Keynote speaker presentation at SoTEL: Scholarship of Technology Enhanced Learning 2019, Auckland University of Technology, Manukau, New Zealand.


Cochrane, Thomas, Stretton, Todd, Aiello, Stephen, Britnell, Sally, Cook, Stuart, & Narayan, Vickel.

(2018). Authentic interprofessional health education scenarios using mobile VR. Research in Learning

Technology, 26, 2130. doc:


Cochrane, T, Cook, S, Aiello, S, Aguayo, C, Dañobeitia, C, & Boncompte, G. (2018). Designing

immersive mobile learning mixed reality for paramedic education. Paper presented at the IEEE-TALE

2018: Education and Technology Conference, University of Wollongong, Australia.


Aguayo, Claudio, Dañobeitia, Cristobel, Cochrane, Thomas, Aiello, Stephen, Cook, Stuart, & Cuevas, A.

(2018). Embodied reports in paramedicine mixed reality learning. Research in Learning Technology, 26,

2150. doc:

Why would a veterinary and agricultural science lecturer use XR?

It might seem unusual for a lecturer in veterinary and agricultural science to be talking about extended reality (XR)- virtual (VR) and augmented (AR) reality. To give you some background about how and why I became involved in XR I need to compare the difference between when I was a veterinary and agricultural science student and how this differs to the current generation of students.

For me, it doesn’t seem all that long ago that I completed my veterinary degree as well as my agricultural science studies, but it is a few decades. When I completed my tertiary studies most of my classmates either knew someone who managed a farm or had relatives that knew someone on a property. This situation has now changed with many students having virtually no contact with rural enterprises and most not having any prior experience on properties before starting their degree. This is a good example of the increasing rural urban divide where there are increasing numbers of people living in major metropolitan regions and less in rural areas (1). It also reflects a greater diversity of student backgrounds from international locations where a similar rural urban divide also exists. A lack of primary production information has also been identified in primary and secondary education with groups such as the Primary Industries Education Foundation of Australia formed to improve food and fibre education (2). This increasing divide means that previous assumptions about students general understanding of food and fibre production needs to be rethought and there is increasing scope for the use of XR to enable on-site learning to enable improved learning when students visit rural enterprises.

We commenced developing virtual reality farms with 360 imaging initially looking at a display via computer screens or mobile devices. Towards the end of producing the 4DVirtualFarm site, Oculus Rift development kits became available so farms could also be viewed in VR using this method (3). Our early VR work used multiple images from a DSLR camera stitched together but have now moved to 360 cameras with multiple lenses – initially the Panono and now the Xphase Pro. A range of other projects involving 3D visualisation are in progress along with augmented reality tools for gamification. These open a range of different methods for students to visit properties virtually before, during or after visits to real properties as well as new ways to visualise animals in 3D. A good example of how this can be used was recent intensive week long online sessions “visiting” two VR properties to allow students to work in small groups to better understand how the properties functioned as they weren’t able to visit the actual properties due to COVID restrictions.
I don’t see XR as a solution to all teaching issues but it is an extra teaching tool in the teaching toolbox that can help increase understanding of a range of areas where it is difficult to get students to places due to cost, timing, biosecurity, EHS and other issues. As tools for producing XR become simpler and cheaper they have significant potential in teaching and learning.

1,%20Changing%20patterns%20of%20population%20and%20distribution.pdf, figure 3, page 7).

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