Glyphs, cyphers and symbols: Mysteries by Romeyn de Hooghe

It is always satisfying to finally identify works of art in the collection that have otherwise remained cloaked in mystery. Such is the case with a group of 20 etchings and engravings in the Baillieu Library Print Collection, which remained unidentified for decades, until now.

A previous researcher was convinced that these perplexing scenes were Spanish emblems, but in truth, separated from any signatures or other explanatory text, it is possible for a viewer to probe these images for hours and remain baffled as to their correct origin and meaning. This is largely because they are the product of the labyrinthine mind of Dutch artist Romeyn de Hooghe (1645-1708) and their true source is his Hieroglyphica of Merkbeelden der oude Volkeren (Symbols of ancient people), published in 1735.

The structure of his book is unusual; instead of a narrative it presents illustrations with a key, accompanied by copious text, to explain their content. In de Hooghe’s lifetime, the deciphering of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs had not been achieved. Thus, they invited interpretation and additionally, it was common practice in the Dutch Republic to present a symbol and apply layers of potential meaning to it. [1.] De Hooghe provides us in his illustrations symbol upon symbol and consequently an overwhelming schema of knowledge. For example, in plate three he conveys the overall theme of Iconology and the symbols represented are: A: The progress of science B: Harpocrates, the silent student C: A priest D: An archaeological obelisk E: Godly exorcism F: A statue of Hecate G: Statue of the Egyptian Horus H: Artificial austerity I: Supplicate the oracle K: Presenting the sacrifice L: Statue of Mophta. [2.]

plate 3 from Hieroglyphica of Merkbeelden der oude Volkeren
Romeyn de Hooghe, plate 3 from Hieroglyphica of Merkbeelden der oude Volkeren, etching and engraving, 1735

The ancient Egyptians were not the only subject of his interpretations though, he also reasoned about the occult, science, classical mythology and religions. Although he may have begun the project with the intention to produce a history of ancient symbols, his focus on religion is such, that the production may be considered rather as a genealogy of religion. [3.] The study of Hieroglyphica is complex, yet highly rewarding experience.

plate 37 from Hieroglyphica of Merkbeelden der oude Volkeren
Romeyn de Hooghe, plate 37 from Hieroglyphica of Merkbeelden der oude Volkeren, etching and engraving, 1735

Kerrianne Stone (Curator, Prints)


[1.] For further explanation of Hieroglyphica see Joke Spaans, ‘Art, science and religion in Romeyn de Hooghe’s “Hieroglyphica”’ in Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek (NKJ) (Netherlands Yearbook for History of Art), Vol. 61, pp. 281-307, 2011

[2.] Romeyn de Hooghe: Hieroglyphica — Symbols of Ancient People

[3.] Joke Spaans, p. 294

Treatment of “The Risen Christ with St Andrew and St Longinus”: An Andrea Mantegna engraving

As part of the Miegunyah bequest funding, engravings after Andrea Mantegna (1431-1506) – much sought after by students of Renaissance art – were conserved. Adele Barbara explains her treatment of one these important works of art. 

The Risen Christ engraving after Mantegna
Unknown artist after Andrea Mantegna, The Risen Christ with St. Andrew and St. Longinus, engraving (1470-1500)

Initially, it was thought there was only one thick backing layer on the engraving of The Risen Christ with St Andrew and St Longinus that had to be removed. Mechanically removing this backing with a scalpel, however, uncovered another, very thin lining that had been fully adhered to the back of the work. A series of investigations were conducted in order to determine what exactly was bonding this lining to the print and the best way of removing it safely.

To discover what kind of adhesive was used to bind the lining to the back of the work, a series of spot tests were conducted. Spot testing in conservation not only helps to identify materials, but can contribute to the development of a treatment methodology. For this work, both a potassium iodide test and a biuret test was used to assess what kind of adhesive was used. Results indicated that the adhesive was starch based. This series of spot tests helped to troubleshoot the next stage of treatment; the separation of the print from its lining.

In order to separate these layers without disrupting or damaging the print, the starch-based adhesive had to gradually softened. To achieve this, the work was gently humidified before it was carefully placed faced up on a piece of thick, wet blotter. To ensure good contact between the back of the work and the blotter, a sheet of Bondina tissue was placed on top of the work, followed by a sheet of glass. This sandwich of blotter and Bondina allowed moisture to gradually permeate through the layers without causing visual or dimensional change to the print.

Smoothing Bondina over the engraving
Smoothing Bondina over the surface of “The Risen Christ” using a smoothing brush

After four hours, the work was removed from beneath the glass and hand tools were used to gradually peel back the lining. Some areas of the lining, however, needed a little more encouragement. To help ease the two layers apart, a heated spatula was applied to the work with a wet blotter to further soften the adhesive. Hand tools could then be used to separate the layers without damaging the print.

Using a heated spatula
Using a heated spatula to soften adhesive
Removing the lining with hand tools








Once this lining was removed, the work could be thoroughly washed and flattened to remove dirt and impurities. Finally, The Risen Christ and other works in the Baillieu’s Print Collection were mounted. Small Japanese paper hinges were attached to the works, which were then joined to inlay paper and then into their own window mounts. This very precise method of mounting allows both sides of the prints to be viewed by students and researchers safely and securely.

Print mounting process
Baillieu prints during the mounting process

Adele Barbara, Paper Conservator

The Grimwade Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation

Conserving the Baillieu’s dragon

Funding from the Miegunyah Bequest enabled the Baillieu Library’s most requested work of art, The Dragon Devouring the Companions of Cadmus (c.1588), to be conserved. Treatment was carried out by paper conservators Peter Mitchelson and Adele Barbara, who explain this intricate process.

The Dragon Devouring the Companions of Cadmus
Hendrick Goltzius after Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem, The Dragon Devouring the Companions of Cadmus, engraving, (c.1588)

While Hendrick Goltzius’ 16th century engraving, The Dragon Devouring the Companions of Cadmus, arrived to the laboratory in a good condition for its age, a thorough conservation treatment was required to bring the print back to its former glory.

The print itself was mounted onto acidic backing board, which prevented access to the back of the work and was potentially a catalyst for degradation into the future. Edges of white paper visible along an edge of the print indicated that it had also been lined in the past to repair tears and strengthen the work. In order to discover what was hidden behind these layers, and allow the print to be repaired and cleaned effectively, these backings had to be removed.

To remove the mount board backing, the engraving was placed face down on a flat, even surface. As the support was adhered in all four corners, most of the board could be cut away. What remained was carefully pared back with a scalpel. Beneath this backing, however, another layer or partially removed backing, with the hint of an inscription showing through, was uncovered. This backing differed from the first in that it had mostly been removed. Due to the presence of an inscription, though, it was decided that these final layers had to be removed. A poultice of methylcellulose was used to gently moisten the remainder of the backing before it could be carefully scraped away.

Once this final layer was removed, the lining paper adhered to the back of the work could then be considered. After trialling the use of a high-pressure steamer to remove the lining with little success, testing was conducted investigate what was adhering the lining so strongly to the back of the print. Spot testing using a potassium iodide solution revealed that a starch-based adhesive was used during the previous treatment. Consequently, it was decided that the most effective way of removing the lining would be while both the lining and the print were wet.

Paper conservators at work
Paper conservators treating the engraving

To achieve this, the print was placed in a bath of warm deionised water face down. Using soft brushes and hand tools, we were gradually able to carefully peel back small sections of the lining until it was completely removed. After the lining was removed, however, a sticky residue remained behind. To quickly remove the adhesive before the print dried, the back of the work was carefully swabbed with small cotton swabs.

Once this process had been completed, the print could then be thoroughly washed in deionised water. This process allowed for any remaining dirt or degradation products to be released, stabilising and cleansing the print. Once washed, the print was flattened to allow for repairs to be made to the tear on the front of the work.

During the removal of the lining, a historic infill was removed from the top right corner of the work. We have selected to retain the original fill, but will instead secure it with discreetly with Japanese tissue.

Once the repairs are complete and the engraving is mounted, The Dragon Devouring the Companions of Cadmus may return to the Baillieu Library Print Collection to be displayed and enjoyed for years to come.

Adele Barbara, Paper Conservator
The Grimwade Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation


Elisabetta Sirani: Artist of Bologna

Women artists working during the 16th and 17th centuries were few, or that is, only a small number came to prominence in the Western canon of art. This may be explained by the many obstacles placed in the way of aspiring female artists, for unlike their male counterparts, they had no guild to support them, which in turn made earning a living through the sale of their art very difficult. [1.] Students of art history are frustrated by this, and lament their under representation in both the history books and in the Baillieu’s Print Collection. Thus, it is a pleasure to highlight one of the women who triumphed over the challenges and became a renowned artist of Bologna: Elisabetta Sirani (1638-1665).

She was taught by her father Giovanni Andrea Sirani (1610-1670) who was also an artist, one that she surpassed in both reception, and in the number of works produced. When he became ill, Elisabetta ran the family studio, and she went on to found a school for women painters. Paintings make up most of her corpus, however, she also made drawings and was a printmaker.

Etching by Elisabetta Sirani
Elisabetta Sirani, Holy Family with St Elizabeth and St John the Baptist, etching (1655-56)

The etching Holy Family with St Elizabeth and St John the Baptist (1655-56), is not after another famous work of art by a male artist, but is rather a design of her own. It conveys an intimate domestic scene with the Virgin Mary nursing Christ and amusing the infant Saint John by dangling an object from her hand. An aging Saint Elizabeth is perhaps winding swaddling cloth, and in the background, Saint Joseph is at work with wood and axe. The architectural devices that dynamically intersect the backdrop are a clever compositional feature.


[1.] Caroline P. Murphy, ‘The economics of the woman artist,’ in Italian women artists: from Renaissance to Baroque, Milano: Skira; New York, NY: Distributed in North America by Rizzoli International, c2007, p. 23

Anniversary of Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation

Forget about Halloween, the 31st of October is Reformation Day, and 2017 marks 500 years since the German monk Martin Luther (1493-1546) nailed his 95 thesis to the door of a church in Wittenberg. That thesis sparked a religious revolution which resulted in the Protestant Reformation. This event changed the spiritual landscape of Europe and beyond.

Along with the publication of controversial texts, Europe was flooded with printed pamphlets and images; the Protestant Reformation also helped to marshal the development and evolution of the print medium.

The Rare Books collection at the Baillieu Library holds a 1518 copy of Luther’s Resolutiones disputationum de Indulgentiarum virtute (Resolutions on the disputations about the power of indulgences). While three very different portraits of him from the Baillieu Library Print Collection show that attempting to frame Martin Luther and his legacy is a very complex exercise.

Martin Luther 1540
Heinrich Aldegrever after Hans Brosamer, Martin Luther, 1540
James Bretherton after Hans Holbein the elder, Martin Luther, (1770-90)
Unknown artist, Martin Luther, 1773

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